Ama-Neanderthals: Ubuciko obudala kakhulu emhlabeni abuzange benziwe abantu

Omunye wemibuzo ephikiswana kakhulu emlandweni wocwaningo lwe-Neanderthal ukuthi ngabe badala ubuciko. Eminyakeni embalwa edlule, ukuvumelana kuye kwaba ukuthi benza, ngezinye izikhathi. Kodwa, njengobudlelwane babo kunoma yikuphi ekupheleni kwesihlahla sokuziphendukela kwemvelo kwe-hominoid, izimfene kanye ne-Homo sapiens, ukuziphatha kwama-Neanderthals kwahlukahluka ngokwesiko kusuka eqenjini kuya kwelinye futhi ngokuhamba kwesikhathi.

I-Replica ye-Maltravieso Cave ene-Neanderthals yeminwe emine yokuphrinta ngesandla, e-Caceres, e-Spain.
I-Replica ye-Maltravieso Cave ene-Neanderthals yeminwe emine yokuphrinta ngesandla, e-Caceres, e-Spain. © Ugogo

Ubuciko babo mhlawumbe bebungabonakali kakhulu kunomfanekiso ongokwenkolo kanye nemidwebo yezilwane yasemhumeni i-Homo Sapiens eyayenza ngemva kokunyamalala kwamaNeanderthal eminyakeni engaba ngu-30,000 edlule. Kodwa abavubukuli sebeqala ukuqonda ukuthi ubuciko be-Neanderthal bokudala babukhona ngokwabo.

AmaHomo sapiens kucatshangwa ukuthi avela e-Afrika kusukela okungenani eminyakeni engu-315,000 edlule. Izibalo ze-Neanderthal eYurophu zilandelelwe emuva okungenani eminyakeni eyi-400,000.

Eminyakeni eyizi-250,000 edlule, amaNeanderthal ayexuba amaminerali afana ne-haematite (ocher) kanye ne-manganese ngoketshezi ukuze enze opende ababomvu nabamnyama - mhlawumbe ukuhlobisa umzimba nezingubo.

Kuyimvelo yomuntu

Ucwaningo olwenziwe ngabavubukuli be-Palaeolithic ngeminyaka yawo-1990s lwashintsha kakhulu umbono ojwayelekile wama-Neanderthal njengama-dullards. Manje sesiyazi ukuthi, kude nokuzama ukuhambisana namaHomo sapiens, babenokuziphatha okuguquguqukayo okwabo. Ubuchopho babo obukhulu buzuze ukugcina kwabo kokuziphendukela kwemvelo.

Siyazi ngokuthola izinsalela emigedeni engaphansi komhlaba, okuhlanganisa imikhondo kanye nobufakazi bokusetshenziswa kwamathuluzi nezimibalabala ezindaweni lapho ama-neanderthal ayengenaso isizathu esisobala sokuthi abonakala ethanda ukwazi ngomhlaba wawo.

I-pigment ebomvu igezelwe emihumeni ye-stalactite drapery ekhanyayo e-Ardales Cave.
I-pigment ebomvu igezelwe emihumeni ye-stalactite drapery ekhanyayo e-Ardales Cave. © Ikhredithi Yesithombe: Paul Pettitt

Kungani babeduka ezweni lokukhanya beya ekujuleni okuyingozi lapho kwakungekho kudla namanzi okuphuzwayo? Asikwazi ukusho ngokuqinisekile, kodwa njengoba lokhu ngezinye izikhathi kwakuhilela ukudala ubuciko ezindongeni zomhume cishe kwakunenjongo ngandlela thize kunokuhlola nje.

AmaNeanderthal ayehlala emaqenjini amancane, asondelene ayeyimizulane. Lapho behamba, babephatha amalahle ukuze babase imililo emincane ematsheni nasemaceleni emifula lapho ababekanise khona. Basebenzisa amathuluzi ukuze bacwebe imikhonto yabo futhi bahlabe izidumbu. Kufanele sicabange ngabo njengamaqembu emindeni, abanjelwe ndawonye ngezingxoxo eziqhubekayo nokuncintisana phakathi kwabantu. Nakuba ihlelwe ngamaqembu amancane ngempela kwakuyizwe labantu ngabanye.

Ukuvela kwesiko elibonakalayo lama-Neanderthals ngokuhamba kwesikhathi liphakamisa ukuthi izakhiwo zabo zenhlalo ziyashintsha. Baqhubeka besebenzisa izingulube kanye nemihlobiso ukuze bahlobise imizimba yabo. Njengoba ngichaza kabanzi encwadini yami, i-Homo Sapiens Rediscovered, amaNeanderthals ahlobisa imizimba yawo mhlawumbe njengoba ukuncintisana kobuholi beqembu kwaba yinkimbinkimbi kakhulu. Imibala nemihlobiso yayidlulisa imilayezo mayelana namandla namandla, isiza abantu ngabanye bakholise abantu besikhathi sabo ngamandla abo nokufaneleka ukuhola.

Khona-ke, okungenani eminyakeni engu-65,000 XNUMX edlule, amaNeanderthal asebenzisa izingulube ezibomvu ukuze apende amamaki ezindongeni zemigede ejulile eSpain. Emhumeni wase-Ardales eduze kwaseMalaga eningizimu yeSpain bafaka imibala ezingxenyeni eziwumgede zama-stalactite amhlophe qwa.

Emhumeni waseMaltravieso e-Extremadura, entshonalanga yeSpain, badweba izandla zabo. Futhi emhumeni waseLa Pasiega eCantabria enyakatho, iNeanderthal eyodwa yenza unxande ngokucindezela iminwe embozwe umbala ngokuphindaphindiwe odongeni.

Elinye lama-stencil ezandla ambalwa asele eMgedeni waseMaltravieso. Kulesi sandla iNeanderthal eyasishiya kwakuzodingeka ilale phansi njengoba sidalwe ophahleni olucishe lube ngu-30cm ukuphakama.
Elinye lama-stencil ezandla ambalwa asele eMgedeni waseMaltravieso. Kulesi sandla iNeanderthal eyasishiya kwakuzodingeka ilale phansi njengoba sidalwe ophahleni olucishe lube ngu-30cm ukuphakama. © Ikhredithi Yesithombe: Paul Pettitt

Asikwazi ukuqagela incazelo ethile yalawa mamaki, kodwa aphakamisa ukuthi abantu base-Neanderthal base beba nemicabango engaphezulu.

Kamuva namanje, cishe eminyakeni engu-50,000 edlule, kwafika imihlobiso yomuntu siqu ukuze ifinyelele umzimba. Lokhu kwakuvinjelwe ezingxenyeni zomzimba wesilwane - imihlobiso elengayo eyenziwe ngamazinyo ezilwane ezidla inyama, amagobolondo nezingcezwana zamathambo. Le migexo yayifana naleyo eyayigqokwa ngesikhathi esifanayo yi-Homo sapiens, cishe ibonisa ukuxhumana okulula okwabiwe iqembu ngalinye elingakuqonda.

Ingabe isiko lokubuka le-Neanderthal lalihlukile kwele-Homo sapiens? Ngicabanga ukuthi mhlawumbe yenzekile, nakuba ingekho ngobunyoninco. Babekhiqiza ubuciko obungewona ongokomfanekiso amashumi ezinkulungwane zeminyaka ngaphambi kokufika kwe-Homo sapiens eYurophu, okubonisa ukuthi babebudale ngokuzimela.

Kodwa kwahluka. Okwamanje asinabo ubufakazi bokuthi ama-Neanderthal akhiqiza ubuciko obungokomfanekiso obufana nemidwebo yabantu noma yezilwane, okwathi kusukela eminyakeni okungenani engu-37,000 edlule yakhiqizwa kabanzi ngamaqembu ama-Homo sapiens ayezogcina eyithathele indawo e-Eurasia.

Ubuciko obungokomfanekiso akulona ibheji lesimanjemanje, noma ukuntuleka kwalo kuyinkomba yobudala. AmaNeanderthal asebenzisa isiko elibonakalayo ngendlela ehlukile kubalandeli bawo. Imibala nemihlobiso yabo yayiqinisa imiyalezo ngomunye nomunye ngemizimba yabo kunokuba ibonise izinto.

Ezimweni eziningi ama-stencil ezandla ayeshiywa ezingxenyeni zezindonga zomhume nosilingi okwakunzima ukufinyelela kuzo, njengalezi ezisemhumeni wase-El Castillo, uPaul Pettitt ebonisa ukuma kwezandla.
Ezimweni eziningi ama-stencil ezandla ayeshiywa ezingxenyeni zezindonga zomhume nosilingi okwakunzima ukufinyelela kuzo, njengalezi ezisemhumeni wase-El Castillo, uPaul Pettitt ebonisa ukuma kwezandla. © Ikhredithi Yesithombe: Paul Pettitt

Kungase kube okuphawulekayo ukuthi izinhlobo zethu zezilwane azizange zikhiqize izithombe zezilwane nanoma yini enye kuze kube ngemva kokuba amaNeanderthal, amaDenisovans namanye amaqembu abantu esephelile. Akekho owake wayisebenzisa e-Eurasia exubene nebiologically yeminyaka engu-300,000 kuya ku-40,000 edlule.

Kodwa e-Afrika kwavela ukwehluka kulendikimba. Okhokho bethu bakuqala babesebenzisa izibala zabo zombala kanye nezimpawu ezingezona ezomfanekiso ukuze baqale ukubhekisela ezifanekisweni ezabiwe zamaqembu omphakathi njengamaqoqo aphindaphindiwe emigqa - amaphethini athile.

Ubuciko babo bubonakala bungenabo abantu futhi bumayelana nemiphakathi, besebenzisa izimpawu ezabiwe njengalezo eziqoshwe ezigangeni ze-ocher emhumeni waseBlombos eNingizimu Afrika, njengemiklamo yezizwe. Izinhlanga zazivela, futhi amaqembu - abanjwe ndawonye ngemithetho yezenhlalakahle nezingqungquthela - azoba yindlalifa ye-Eurasia.


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